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By Philip K. Hitti (auth.)

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All this took place despite the fact that Lebanon had no Greek cities but only immigrants, comprising war veterans, traders, artists and scholars sprinkled in its cities. It should, however, be remembered that as Semites were being Grecized, Greeks were being Semitized. The Orientalization of the Hellenic world was no less effective than the Hellenization of the Orient. Seleucid kings adopted additional Semitic names. Gods were amalgamated. Baal became Zeus. Melkarth, as noted above, was identified with Herakles.

C. appear on Egyptian monuments. On Assyrian monuments of a later date trading vessels and battleships from the Lebanese coast display a different style. Phoenician discovery of the usefulness of the Pole Star and other heavenly bodies facilitated night navigation. The Greeks were pupils of Phoenicians in seamanship. They named the Pole Star after them and built their ships on their model, as evidenced by vase paintings. The same type was presumably used for Solomon's ships "by shipmen who had knowledge of the sea" (I K.

The special characteristic of our part of the world is love of learning", had some justification. Starting long before this time with coastwise sailings to peddle their tunny, glass, earthenware and other local products, Phoenicians in this period of independence struck across the open sea, charted east-to-west trade routes and planted colonies on all sides of the Mediterranean basin. Of this sea they made a Phoenician lake before the Greeks and Romans claimed it as their own. The deep seemed to have held no deterring horrors for them, but rather invited them.

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