By Julia Lynch
This publication asks why a few international locations commit the lion's proportion in their social coverage assets to the aged, whereas others have a extra balanced repertoire of social spending. faraway from being the result of calls for for welfare spending by way of robust age-based teams in society, the 'age' of welfare is an unintentional outcome of how that social courses are manage. the best way that politicians use welfare nation spending to compete for votes, alongside both programmatic or particularistic strains, locks those early institutional offerings into position. So whereas society is altering - getting older, divorcing, relocating out and in of the hard work strength over the lifestyles path in new methods - social guidelines don't evolve to capture up. the end result, in occupational welfare states like Italy, the USA, and Japan, is social spending that favors the aged and leaves working-aged adults and kids principally to fend for themselves.
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Extra resources for Age in the Welfare State: The Origins of Social Spending on Pensioners, Workers, and Children (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics)
And we have detected some evidence that across different policy areas, countries are consistent in the way that they allocate resources to different age groups in their populations. Clearly, some countries spend more on services and others more on cash beneﬁts; some more on active labor market policies and others more on unemployment beneﬁts; some try to ensure equality of access via education, some through the labor market; and others equality of outcome via income supports. Among those countries that spend a lot on their nonelderly populations, some allocate more resources to children and others to working-age adults.
11 How much do 11 34 Classifying all tax expenditures on private pensions as an elderly expenditure is admittedly somewhat arbitrary, since the age of the average beneﬁciary will depend on whether the tax relief is granted at the time of the payment into the pension plan or at the time of liquidation of the pension. Since most countries do both, it is very difﬁcult to judge which is the most reasonable assumption on balance. S. K. 8 Source: OECD 1996. families and young people gain from tax exemptions on unemployment beneﬁts, child care, or family allowances?
The key to understanding this difference is the very different ways that political competition has been organized in the two countries for much of the postwar period. Italian politics has been characterized by an extremely high degree of political particularism. By contrast, politics in the Netherlands has tended toward the programmatic end of the spectrum. This difference in the mode of political competition between Italy and the Netherlands explains why the Netherlands adopted citizenship-based welfare programs, such as universal pensions, universal family allowances, and a basic social minimum, while Italy did not.