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Download Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug by Paul Gootenberg PDF

By Paul Gootenberg

Illuminating a hidden and interesting bankruptcy within the historical past of globalization, Paul Gootenberg chronicles the increase of 1 of the main remarkable and now unlawful Latin American exports: cocaine. Gootenberg lines cocaine's heritage from its origins as a clinical commodity within the 19th century to its repression through the early 20th century and its dramatic reemergence as a bootleg stable after global conflict II. Connecting the tale of the drug's alterations is a number of individuals, items, and tactics: Sigmund Freud, Coca-Cola, and Pablo Escobar all make appearances, exemplifying the worldwide impacts that experience formed the historical past of cocaine. yet Gootenberg decenters the conventional tale to discover the jobs performed through hitherto vague yet important Andean actors as well—for instance, the Peruvian pharmacist who constructed the innovations for refining cocaine on an business scale and the creators of the unique drug-smuggling networks that many years later will be taken over via Colombian traffickers. Andean Cocaine proves integral to realizing some of the most vexing social dilemmas of the past due twentieth-century Americas: the yankee cocaine epidemic of the Eighties and, in its wake, the possible never-ending U.S. drug warfare within the Andes.

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By 1700, coca had basically transformed into a regional commodity of limited range and a debased cultural artifact of the Andean realms of the Spanish American empire. It can be argued, perhaps, that coca was indirectly crucial to Europe’s commercial revolutions because of the way it helped lubricate Spain’s core colonial silver mining enterprise. By 1580, the leaf became a major consumable and stimulant for coerced Indian mita workers in the legendary silver mines of Potosí, and Peruvian silver swelled the world money supply and secured western Europe’s ascension in the world economy.

Halsted (a father of modern surgery). In a kind of “panacea” phase until the early 1890s, when the drug’s clinical limits and dangers were absorbed, cocaine was tried or suggested for everything from labor pains to cholera, hysteria, hay fever, toothaches, and melancholy. 11 Freud’s lasting impact was in getting his colleague Karl Köller, a Viennese ophthalmologist and anesthesia researcher, interested in the drug. In September 1884, Köller put together the clues and recognized cocaine’s major and first proven value: as an effective local anesthetic.

23 Doctors quickly and discreetly restricted dosages and medical usage, narrowing cocaine’s crucial role to that of a surgical anesthetic. Cocaine, however, had won a legitimate place in American medicine. What arose later — cocaine’s mid-1890s spillover into patent medicines and rumored pleasure use — lay outside the realm of medical practice and was opposed by alarmed doctors, pharmacists, and the larger ethical pharmaceutical industry. Most felt that self-regulation, rather than federal prohibition, was the best cure for this problem.

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