By Carl-Gustaf Elinder, Lars Gerhardsson, Guenter Oberdoerster (auth.), Thomas W. Clarkson, Lars Friberg, Gunnar F. Nordberg, Polly R. Sager (eds.)
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Extra info for Biological Monitoring of Toxic Metals
Transport. distribution and elimination of aluminum. One reason for this is the lack of a suitable radioactive isotope and the difficulties involved in obtaining and analyzing uncontaminated biological samples. A schematic presentation of the metabolic model is given in Fig. 5. 1 9 or more). urinary excretion may increase more than tenfold; this implies that at least a small amount of the aluminum ingested was absorbed. Simultaneous intake of citric acid markedly increased the absorption of aluminum from the gut.
2 Metabolic model. Kinetics of antimony metabolism are represented in Fig. 6. Data on the absorption of inhaled antimony compounds have not been published. There is also a lack of data on gastrointestinal absorption after peroral intake in humans. Intravenous injections of labeled antimony gave the highest concentrations in liver, thyroid, and heart. 1 mg/kg wet weight have been reported from the lung. Liver and kidney contain concentrations about one-third that of the lung. Deceased smelter workers had 12 times higher antimony concentrations in lung tissue compared to nonexposed controls from a rural area.
However, firm conclusions are still lacking. 4 Biological monitoring. Blood and urine analyses are used for biological monitori ng. However, reported data are very scanty. 6 ~g/l). Occupationally exposed workers had a median antimony concentration in urine of 54 ~g/l in one study compared to less than 1 ~g/l for controls not occupationally exposed. 5 Evaluation. Although uptake and excretion are highly dependent on the type of antimony compound, blood and urine measurements of antimony may be useful in exposure assessment.