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Download Concepts of Epidemiology: An integrated introduction to the by Raj Bhopal PDF

By Raj Bhopal

Epidemiology issues the frequency, trend, and factors of affliction in populations. it's some of the most very important smooth sciences underpinning wellbeing and fitness and healthcare- together with medication, public future health and occupation allied to medication. options in Epidemiology explains and illustrates the main concepts(language, rules and techniques) that underpin the technological know-how of epidemiology and its purposes to coverage making, overall healthiness provider making plans and healthiness merchandising. Richly illustrated, there are routines to aid readers deepen their realizing, with detrailed fabric captured in tables. each one bankruptcy results in a precis, and all technical and really good terminology is defined and outlined in a thesaurus. The booklet locations heavy emphasis on integrating the guidelines of epidemiology. subject matters contain: the character and scope of epidemiology; the epidemiological ideas of inhabitants; edition in affliction by means of time, position and individual: mistakes, bias, hazard amendment and confounding; reason and impression: the ideas of ordinary heritage, spectrum, iceberg, inhabitants styles and screening; hazard and measures of ailment frequency; presentation and interpretation of epidemiological info on probability; examine layout; and theoretical, moral, contextual, functional and demanding foundations of epidemiology.

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Additional info for Concepts of Epidemiology: An integrated introduction to the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Example text

To ascribe differences solely to genetic factors would be a serious though tempting error. By contrast, differences between men and women in the risk of breast cancer are likely to be biological and for cervical cancer are, of course, wholly biological because men don’t have a cervix. The depth of the analysis will, therefore, be disease and context specific. Differences in health care between men and women, as explanations for disease variations, arouse great controversy, because inequitable health care is unethical.

In short, epidemiology studies disease within a cultural context, and is particularly concerned with social organization. Epidemiology is, therefore, not only a bio-science but also a social science. Populations exist in a physical environment which is a dominant force in determining health. The study of life in relation to the environment is ecology (the word derives from the Greek for house), so epidemiology is, in addition, the science of the ecology of disease. The science of epidemiology, therefore, combines elements of biology, social sciences, and ecology: a bio-social-environmental science focusing on disease in populations.

Imagine that the physical environment remained similar to that we experience now; that is, people lived in housing of similar quality and used similar cars etc. ◆ What would be the effect on disease patterns? ◆ Which diseases would be more common and which less so? ◆ What would the influences be on lifestyles? Chapter 1 introduced the idea that disease patterns were influenced by the interaction of social, environmental, and individual level factors. The examples emphasized then were of infections.

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