By L.A. Fisk, J.R. Jopikii, G.M. Simnett, Rudolf von Steiger, K.-P. Wenzel
In each clinical self-discipline there are milestones - sessions of vital accom plishment while it really is applicable to pause and summarize the nation of the sphere. Such is the case for the examine of the habit of cosmic rays within the heliosphere. we're simply passing via sun minimal stipulations, whilst the heliosphere has a well-ordered and comparatively easy configuration. now we have been lucky to have an array of spacecraft - unheard of within the historical past of area exploration and not going to be repeated for generations - to supply complete measurements of cosmic rays through the heliosphere. Ulysses has accomplished its historical first exploration of the heliosphere at excessive heliographic latitudes. Pioneer and Voyager were exploring the outer heliosphere. The sturdy IMP-8 and now the WIND spacecraft have supplied certain baseline measurements at Earth. simultaneously, there was a gentle development in theoretical knowing of cosmic ray habit by utilizing ever extra subtle numerical types. This milestone in cosmic ray experiences used to be celebrated with a Workshop on Cos mic Rays within the Heliosphere which used to be convened by way of L. A. Fisk, J. R. Jokipii.
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Additional resources for Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere: Volume Resulting from an ISSI Workshop 17–20 September 1996 and 10–14 March 1997, Bern, Switzerland
316,547. : 1995, 'Latitudinal Effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays Observed Onboard the Ulysses Spacecraft', Proc. 24th lilt' I Cosmic Ray Conf (Rome) 4, 756. : 1994, 'Modulation of Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere', in Proc. 23rd Int'l Cosmic Ray Conf. (Calgary), Invited, Rapporteur, and Highlight Papers, World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 213-242. : 1992, 'The Ulysses cosmic ray and solar particle investigation', Astron. Astrophys. 92, 365. , Zhang. : 1996, 'A solar polar North-South asymmetry for cosmic ray propagation in the heliosphere: the Ulysses pole-to-pole rapid transit', Astrophys.
B. 5 po Year -1900 Figure J. 0 at 1954 solar minimum. ecliptic. 2 AU. Observations from this rapid latitude scan provide a nearly complete picture of the latitudinal variation of modulation in the inner heliosphere during a period near minimum solar modulation (ej Figure I). Following this rapid scan, Ulysses gradually returned to low latitudes, reaching a latitude of rv 20 0 N near a radius of 5 AU by the end of 1996. The observations summarized here are derived from the COS PIN instrumentation on Ulysses, primarily from the High Energy Telescope (HET) and the Kiel Electron telescope (KET).
Van Allen and Randall (1997) have emphasized the difficulty of finding stable and reliably calibrated measures of the integral flux. A long-term drift in the IMP-8 efficiency is believed to exist (C. Lopate, private communication. 1997). and the response of the HET integral counting rate is believed to have variations in efficiency as a function of energy above its threshold energy of ~ 92 MeV (McKibben. unpublished memorandum, 1992). rendering its integrated response possibly sensitive to spectral changes associated with changing levels of modulation.