By John S. Ebersole
Drs. Ebersole and Pedley are awesome educators with large adventure in enhancing of the best journals--Journal of medical Neurophysiology and Epilepsia, respectively. during this quantity, Ebersole and Pedley hide the complete diversity of functions of EEG and evoked potentials in modern scientific perform. The ebook explains the main complex instrumentation and strategies and their use in comparing quite a few problems. greater than six hundred illustrations depict either basic and irregular findings.
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Additional resources for Current practice of clinical electroencephalography
13. Purpura DP, Grundfest H. Nature of dendritic potentials and synaptic mechanisms in cerebral cortex of cat. J Neurophysiol 1956;19:573–595. 14. Scherg M. Fundamentals of dipole source potential anal ysis. , Hoke M, Romani GL, eds. Auditory evoked magnetic fields and potentials. Advances in audiology. Basel: Karger, 1990:40–69. Chapter 3 Engineering Principles Brian Litt and Stephen D. Cranstoun Electrodes Common Types of Electrodes The Electroencephalograph Machine: Practical Issues Jackbox and Montage Selector Amplifiers Electroencephalogram Filters Ancillary Electroencephalographic Controls Penmanship Paper Transport Processing During and After Data Acquisition Networking, Data Storage, and Report Generation Data Storage, Media, Universal Readers, and Report Generation Evoked Potentials Electrical Safety Exacerbating Factors Conclusions Acknowledgments Electroencephalographic Technology Key Points References Electrical Basics Circuit Elements Resistors Capacitors Inductors Power Sources Active Circuit Elements Circuits Circuit Elements in Series and in P arallel Time Constants Simple Filters Impedance The Digital World Introduction to Digital Computers Analog and Digital Signals Analog-to-Digital Converters Visual Resolution: How the Electroencephalogram Looks to the Reader Recording “The Right Stuff ”: Nyquist’s Theorem and Aliasing Referential Recording The Electroencephalograph Machine: An Overview 32 ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES Electroencephalography (EEG) involves recording and anal yzing electrical signals generated by the brain.
The mean of all recording electrodes is an appro ximation of this. Obviously, the more electrodes used, particularly from undersampled re gions of the head , the more such a reference approximates the true zero potential. To the untrained eye, such a reference ma y initially cause confusion because f ields of both polarities are emphasized. F ocal negative spikes from one hemisphere or lobe are accompanied b y positive potentials, commonly from the opposite hemisphere. This distribution does not represent bilateral spik e sources; rather, it represents the nor mal dipolar f ield of any cerebral generator.
Nevertheless, potential differences between a circuit element and either g round rod typically are large in comparison with potential differences between two ground points. Exceptions and cautions regarding possible voltages between two different grounds are reviewed near the end of this chapter , in the section on electrical safety. 1 lists typical voltages and currents for a few commonly encountered systems. 1. 000001 Note: Numbers are rough approximations, for illustrative purposes only. EEG, electroencephalography.